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Base metal alloy separates water molecules into gases via non interactive catalyst (causing bond dissociation WITH NO ENERGY INPUT)

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the most important pantent picture ever uploaded to the internet
Bending a stream of water with an electrostatic charge.

Insights into the catalytic nature of the Chemalloy patent and the NON-interactive covalent bond dissociation of the Water Molecule!
The situation is that there's a spectrum of bonding. Red and orange are separate colors, yet there's a spectrum of colors that exist as we go from red to orange. Similarly, ionic and covalent are separate types of bonds but there's some bonds that have ionic character and covalent character. This is where the issue of POLAR/NONPOLAR comes in and the idea of electronegativity.If it's an ionic bond, it's polar. If it's a covalent bond between two atoms of the same electronegativity, both atoms get to share the electrons equally, thus it is nonpolar. Yet if we look at [[H2O]], we see covalent bonds. However the oxygen is FAR more electronegative than hydrogen, so even though H and O are sharing electrons, the O "hogs" more than it's fair share. This causes the oxygen to bear "more electron density" than the H does. So oxygen is partially negative (since it's hoarding the electron pair) and the hydrogens are partially positive (since they aren't getting their fair share of the electrons). This results in a polar molecule.

Bond dissociation energy
Bond^Dissociation^energy
Metallic or alloy bond dissociation energy
Metallic_Bond.html
Bond^Dissociation^energy

Water as Fuel yes water as a free reuseable clean uncontrollable fuel!
Green Renewable Water Energy
Samuel Freedman ChemAlloy Formula has been made public.
It Dissociates (Lyses) water continuously, Cheaply

Samuel Freedman; (Robert;site author>) Too bad you don't believe in perpetual motion; you can't play with me!:-)>

a href="http://greenrenewablesolarenergy.com/purdue.alloy.splitting.water.splits.water.aluminum.gallium.indium.tin.html">Purdue Alloy splits water
Chemalloy Samuel Freedman water as fuel free clean fuel
Evolve your understanding of Waters Molecular Covalent Bond nstability
http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/molecule.html internet url source info for "The molecule of water" A molecule is an aggregation of atomic nuclei and electrons that is sufficiently stable to possess observable properties— and there are few molecules that are more stable and difficult to decompose than H2O. In water, each hydrogen nucleus is bound to the central oxygen atom by a pair of electrons that are shared between them; chemists call this shared electron pair a covalent chemical bond. In H2O, only two of the six outer-shell electrons of oxygen are used for this purpose, leaving four electrons which are organized into two non-bonding pairs. The four electron pairs surrounding the oxygen tend to arrange themselves as far from each other as possible in order to minimize repulsions between these clouds of negative charge. This would ordinarly result in a tetrahedral geometry in which the angle between electron pairs (and therefore the H-O-H bond angle) is 109.5°. However, because the two non-bonding pairs remain closer to the oxygen atom, these exert a stronger repulsion against the two covalent bonding pairs, effectively pushing the two hydrogen atoms closer together. The result is a distorted tetrahedral arrangement in which the H—O—H angle is 104.5°. Because molecules are smaller than light waves, they cannot be observed directly, and must be "visualized" by alternative means. This computer-generated image comes from calculations that model the electron distribution in the H2O molecule. The outer envelope shows the effective "surface" of the molecule as defined by the extent of the cloud of negative electric charge created by the ten electrons.
Please copy and disperse rapidly CopyRightAway
Understanding the instability of the Water Molecular bond arrangement.
Green Renewable Solar Energy Gallium Nitride
Cheap Metal Alloy lyses Water molecule into its elements continuously
Samuel Freedman: Chemalloy made of zinc and lead. The implication is that unlimited amounts of Hydrogen fuel can be made to drive engines (like in your car) for the cost of water. Even more amazing is the fact that a special metal alloy was patented by Freedman (USA) in 1957 that spontaneously breaks water into Hydrogen and Oxygen with no outside electrical input and without causing any chemical changes in the metal itself. This means that this special metal alloy can make Hydrogen from water for free, forever. But the most remarkable discovery was when the metal was ground down to a fine powder. (1,000,000 pieces per pound) When powdered ChemAlloy was placed in water, it immediately began producing hydrogen and oxygen bubbles until all the water was gone. Chemalloy Was Developed in 1951 as a fluxless aluminum solder alloy, by combining zinc and lead in the presence of raw muriatic acid, at a temperature of 1500° F. Originally explosive, today the process is reduced to violent boiling and prolonged to five minutes by the use of porous copper slag and finely divided charcoal. zinc lead muriatic acid porous copper slag finely divided charcoal &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& Nicola Tesla
Supported by the Pierce-Arrow Co. and Westinghouse in 1931, he took the gasoline engine from a new Pierce-Arrow and replaced it with an 80-horsepower alternating-current electric motor with no external power source. At a local radio shop he bought 12 vacuum tubes, some wires and assorted resistors, and assembled them in a circuit box 24 inches long, 12 inches wide and 6 inches high, with a pair of 3-inch rods sticking out. Getting into the car with the circuit box in the front seat beside him, he pushed the rods in, announced, "We now have power," and proceeded to test drive the car for a week, often at speeds of up to 90 mph. As it was an alternating-current motor and there were no batteries involved, where did the power come from? Popular responses included charges of "black magic," and the sensitive genius didn't like the skeptical comments of the press. He removed his mysterious box, returned to his laboratory in New York - and the secret of his power source died with him. !!!! Faraday? Laws of thermodynamics? yeah right! &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& from: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:WUDEJPMhT0QJ:www.free-energy.ws/samuel-freedman.html+%22This+process+continued+until+all+of+the+water%22&hl=en&gl=us&strip=1 Samuel Freedman.... "But the most remarkable discovery was when the metal was ground down to a fine powder. When powdered ChemAlloy was placed in water, it immediately began producing hydrogen and oxygen bubbles. This process continued until all of the water was gone! But like before, the metal itself remained inert and chemically unchanged." "Even more amazing is the fact that a special metal alloy was patented by Freedman (USA) in 1957 that spontaneously breaks water into Hydrogen and Oxygen with no outside electrical input and without causing any chemical changes in the metal itself. This means that this special metal alloy can make Hydrogen from water for free, forever...." from http://www.rexresearch.com/articles/thermloy.htm#2796345 US Patent # 2,796,345 Process of Producing Lead-Zinc Alloys (June 18, 1957) Samuel Freedman This invention relates to welding or soldering alloysand to processes of making such alloys. One object of this invention is to provideawelding or soldering alloy which can be used to unite metal parts including aluminum parts, without teh necessity of employing careful cleaning procedure or fluxes, and without the necessity of employing the drastic cleaning measures or using the corrosive fluxes or specialized equipment previously required with aluminum welding or soldering processes in order to remove the tenacious oxide film from the surface of the aluminum. Object is to provide a welding or soldering alloy for uniting metal parts, including aluminum or aluminum alloy parts, which alloy is quickly and easily employed by merely bringing the aluminum or aluminum alloy parts together, heating them at their proposed junction by any suitable means such as a gas torch in order to raise them above the melting point of the welding alloy, and then stroking the parts at their juntion by passing a rod of the alloy back and forth along their juntion, whereupon the welding rod melts and flows by capillary attraction into and along the joint without previously applying a flux, uniting the parts tenaciously in a firm and permanent joint. Another object is to provide a welding or soldering alloy for uniting metal parts, including aluminum or aluminum alloy parts, wherein the welded area, after welding or sodlering, has a strength at the junction which is greater than the strength of the adjacent metal, so that if the parts are sibjected to excessive force, they will break adjacent the junction, but not at the junction itself, even if the welding alloy has approximately the same thickness at the junction of the adjoining aluminum or aluminum alloy parts which have been welded. Another object is to provide a welding or soldering alloy for uniting metal parts, including aluminum or aluminum alloy parts, which alloy has a silvery appearance at the welded junction and which will not rust or corrode, and which can be readily machined, polished, plated or painted. Another object of Samuel Freedman is to provide a welding or soldering alloy for uniting metal parts, including aluminum or aluminum alloy parts, which alloy can be employed by inexperienced persons without special training and without the need for any of the special preparatory measures previously required in uniting aluminum parts, and not requiring welding hoods, colored glasses or special eye protection. Another object of Samuel Freedman is to provide a welding or soldering alloy for uniting metal parts, including aluminum or aluminum alloy parts, wherein the welded area has a very fine grain structure without porosity, and wherein soft solder will adhere so as to enable the attachment of wires to aluminum or aluminum alloy parts by soldering the wires to the welding metal. Another object is to provide a welding or soldering alloy for uniting metal parts, including aluminum or aluminum alloy parts, where special grooving or other special preparation of the edges of the aluminum parts to be united is not necessary, because the welding alloy of the present invention penetrates throught the oxide film to the interior of the metal to make a strong fusion, and flows readily without spattering or creating lumps, and without the production of the fumes or odors produced when fluxes are used as in prior processes of uniting aluminum or aluminum alloy parts. Another object of Samuel Freedman is to provide a process for making a welding or soldering alloy having the characteristics set forth in the preceding objects, wherein the process enables the introduction of chemicals into the alloy while it is in a molten state, without the production of dangerous explosives which have hitherto characterized the attempted mixing of such chemicals with molten metal, these chemicals giving the alloy its properties of penetrating through oxide layers or coatings of impurities and of flowing easily and naturally by capillary attraction into the junction between the parts to be united. Another object of Samuel Freedman is to provide a process of making a welding or soldering alloy, as set forth in the object immediately above, wherein the danger of explosion in introducing the chemicals into the molten alloy is further reduced by the use of a layer of carbon, such as fine grain charcoal forming an insulating blanket, over the top of the molten alloy, the porous material containing the chemicals being placed upon this carbon layer and pushed through it into the molten alloy beneath it, the slag, after being freed from its chemicals, floating to the surface where it is skimmed off. Hitherto, the welding or soldering of aluminum has been a difficult procedure requiring specialized knowledge, skilled workmanship, and careful preparation of the aluminum or aluminum alloy parts to be welded. The tenacious film of oxide which adheres to the surface of aluminum or aluminum alloys, unless removed by careful preparation or by the use of corrosive fluxes, effectively prevented the obtaining of a strong welded junction between the parts being united. Furthermore, the fact that aluminum melts suddenly at 1217º F without any advance indication, such as discoloroation, of nearing nearing the melting point, has made high temperature welding procedures dangerous, due to the possibility of destroying the parts themselves by their sudden disintegration. The corrosive fluxes hitherto used have also caused the creation of annoying fumes and odors, and protective goggles, hoods or the like have been required because of the danger to the eyes of the welding material spattering or sputtering. Nevertheless, without first applying a flux to create a flow path, the welding or soldering alloy would not flow along or into the junction of the parts to be united. The welding alloy of the present invention, as made by the process of the present invention, eliminates these defects and accomplishes the new results and advantages set forth in the above-stated objects. In preparing the alloy of the present invention, the following metals and metal alloys are melted together in a crucible in the following proportions to provide the metallic ingredients: Yellow brass (30% zinc and 70% copper): 8 lb Aluminum: 8 lb 40-60 solder (40% tin 60% lead): 1.5 lb Silver (.1%) or Nickel (0.1%): 0.1 lb Zinc, to make up a 100 pound batch or: 82.3 lb The chemical ingredients are next prepared in approximately the following proportions, for a 100 pound batch of the above metal ingredients: Powdered copper slag 3.0 lb Yellow sulphur 1.25 lb Willow charcoal 0.75 lb Commercial muriatic (hydrochloric) acid 0.50 gallons The chemical ingredients are mixed together thoroughly and the acid added and stirred into the dry ingredients until a thin or watery paste-like mass is produced. Meanwhile, the metal ingredients in the crucible have been heated until they reach the temperature of approximately 1450º F.
(Editors note: How is the silver melted at this temperature?)
and a layer of fine grain powdered charcoal of approximately a half-inch thickness is deposited on top of the molten metal to form an insulating blanket. When this charcoal layer has become red in color, the wet mass of chemical ingredients is deposited entirely over the top of the charcoal blanket in a thick layer. Using a suitable pushing device, such as a metal rod, the chemical mass is forced down through the charcoal blanket into the molten metal mixture, a small area at a time. The charcoal blanket shields the remainder of the mass from explosion or excessive reaction. As the chemical mass is pushed into the molten metal mixture in the crucible, a multitude of tiny reactions occurs throughout it, instead of a single large explosion, due to the fact that the chemical particles are separated from one another by the porous inert slag and by the particles of charcoal. As each portion which has been pushed down into the molten mixture is absorbed into the latter, another portion is pushed down and so on, until each portion of the chemical mass or layer has been pushed through the insulating charcoal blanket, a small area at a time. After all of the wet chemical mass has been pushed downward into the molten metal mixture in the crucible, the entire mixture is stirred thoroughly to release all of the chemicals from the pores of the copper slag and to cause the tiny reactions and the explosions to be completed. When this has been done, and the slag has lost its chemical impregnations by these reactions and minute explosions, the slag floats to the surface of the molten metal mixture, along with other impurities or superfluous materials, these being skimmed from the surface of the molten mixture, leaving the latter in its finished state. The chemically-impregnated alloy thus formed is then poured out and formed into suitable shapes such as rods, bars or ingots. During the period in which the chemical ingredients are being pushed downward through the charcoal blanket into the molten metal mixture, corrosive fumes are emitted which must be carefully disposed of or they will discolor paint, corrode ferrous metals, and cause annoyance to persons in the vicinity. After the alloy has been made in the above manner, however, it may be subsequently remelted without the formation of such fumes. The chemically-impregnated alloy remaining after the process has been completed is a finely homogenized, high quality alloy which is easily machined, plated or painted, as desired. The present process also enables the combining of zinc and lead in an alloy, even though these metals are normally incompatible. For example, only one-half of one percent of lead in a zinc based die, such as is used in aircraft production, causes the die to crack during use, because lead will not ordinarily mix with zinc satisfactorily. The copper slag mentioned in the foregoing process is the waste slag produced in copper smelting plants, and is useful because of its porosity and inert characteristics. It will be obvious that other porous materials which are similarly inert may also be employed to subdivide the chemical ingredients in the above manner and thereby convert an otherwise dangerous single explosion into a multitude of tiny harmless explosions and reactions. The chemical ingredients thus incorporated into the metal alloy impart to the alloy the capability of flowing naturally and easily by capillary attraction when the alloy is applied to the junction of metal parts, such as aluminum to be united, without the previous use of a flux. Hitherto, it has been necessary to apply a flux in order to form a flux path at the junction of the metal parts to be united, or otherwise the welding metal does not flow well, and does not easily enter the junction between the metal parts to be united. The proportions, and indeed, the components of the metallic mixture are not critical and many variations may be used. In place of the brass, pure copper or even bronze can be employed, more copper giving greater strength. The nickel and silver components are mere traces which produce better uniting of the metal components with one another. The chemical components of the alloy enable the alloy to penetrate the oxide film on aluminum without wire brushing or other previous preparation and to penetrate the crack or other junction between the parts to be united and to emerge on the opposite side thereof. Proof that the chemical ingredients remain in the alloy is found in the fact that shavings of the alloy placed in a glass of ordinary tap water cause the flow of an electric current which may be detected by a voltmeter, milliampmeter or cathode ray oscilloscope when leads or electrodes connected thereto are inserted in the water. Moreover when the alloy particles or shavings have been permitted to remain in the water for several hours, gas bubbles will emerge from the water and form on the surface. Each of these bubbles explodes upon the application of a match, showing that chemicals in the alloy shavings produce hydrogen and other gases when placed in water. A still more powerful effect is obtained when salt water is used. Moreover, if the alloy is prepared in the form of a powder, this powder tends to come to the surface of the water and float thereon even though its specific gravity or weight is nearly seven times that of water. In the use of the alloy of the invnetion in soldering or welding metal parts, such as aluminum, the extreme and exacting cleaning measures employed are unnecessary. the parts to be united, if not already satisfactorily supported adjacent one another, are placed in proximity to one another at the location where they are to be united, and heated by any suitable means, to a temperature which sufficient to melt the alloy. A temperature of approximately 800º F at the point of weld is sufficient, and as this is 400º to 500º degrees lower than the melting point of aluminum or aluminum alloys, there is no danger of harming the parts if ordinary care is taken. No special heating equipment is necessary, as the parts may be heated electrically, as by a hot plate, or by the application of a flame, such as from a gas torch, Bunsen burner, spirit lamp or the like. When the parts have been so heated, a piece, such as a rod, of the alloy of the present invention is rubbed against the parts and passed to and fro along their proposed junction. Since the melting point of the welding alloy of the present invention is below 825º F, it melts and flows easily at that temperature, forming a silvery liquid resembling mercury. No flux is necessary to cause the alloy to flow, penetrate or adhere. As the rod is rubbed back and forth along the junction, the alloy melts and flows easily and naturally by capillary action into the junction where it quickly solidifies. At the same time, it attacks the oxide film on the aluminum or aluminum alloy, and penetrates below that film into the metal itself, so that a strong weld is obtained. The alloy, upon cooling, has a silvery, attractive appearance which blends well with the adjacent aluminum or aluminum alloy. It also has a very fine grain structure and is substantially free from porosity. The alloy of the present invention may be used either in soldering, brazing or welding any aluminum or zinc-based metal with a very high efficiency and also in uniting other metals or materials with varying degrees of efficiency. The welding handbook of the American Welding Society in effect states that soldering takes place below 800º F, brazing above 800º F, and welding at such higher temperatures where the parent metal itself has been disturbed and fusion has taken place. The metal parts when united by the alloy of the present invention, may be machined by the usual techniques and equipment, as the alloy machines easily and is also painted or plated. The use of the alloy of the present invention may be summarized by stating that it may be employed for (1) welding of the metal parts without fusion, namely soldering or brazing; (2) welding with fusion of the metal parts, namely use of sufficient heat to cause surface fusion of the metal parts to be united; and (3) welding with fusion of the parts to be untied, accompanied by capillary action, namely welding wherein the alloy flows along the parts and through the junction thereof without the previous use of a flux. The use of the alloy of the present invention for soldering, brazing or welding metals other than aluminum alloys, such as the zinc base metal mentioned above, is carried out in a similar manner except that the working margin of the temperature between the zinc in the parts to be united and the present alloy is much smaller since aluminum melts at the relatively high temperature of 1217º F, whereas zinc melts at the relatively low temperature of 713º F. To lower the melting temperature of the alloy of the present invention, therefore, the silver and nickel should be omitted and the proportionate amount of brass reduced, as these metals contribute to raising the melting point. Experiments have also shown that the alloy of the present invnetion may be used to solder, braze or weld magnesium, but considerably more care and vigilance is necessary because magnesium, although melting at about 1200º F, occasionally catches fire at about 1000º F. Here also, the working margin of temperature is rather small and consequently operations must be conducted with caution. In the process of preparing the alloy of the present invention, if the furnace heat is inadvertently raised to too high a temperature so that some of the metal ingredients start to volatize, particularly the zinc, the operator immediately covers the top of the molten metal in the crucible with a layer of willow charcoal, which stops the volatilization. Normally, however, the operator does not use more charcoal after the layer which he initially applies, and waits until this charcoal powder has become completely red before he attempts to push the chemical ingredients downward through it into the molten metal. In practice, if the chemical ingredients are forced through the charcoal blanket prematurely, that is before it becomes fully red, the charcoal powder will puff up in clouds of black smoke which is irritating to the lungs and soils the clothing and the surroundings. It has been found best to permit the charcoal to ignite and burn at the outer periphery of the crucible and gradually consume itself toward the center of the blanket, whereupon the flame disappears and the top of the molten metal in the crucible becomes tightly sealed with a red charcoal coating. To improve the free machining characteristics of the alloy, the proportion of solder may be increased, the machinability increasing as the proportion of solder is increased. Thus, in the formula given above, instead of 1.5 pounds of solder for a hundred pound batch, as much as 3 to 5 pounds of solder may be beneficially employed. Additional sulphur is employed occasionally if, for example, it is found that high melting components of the alloy are not properly melting, even though the temperature has been raised to the point where other ingredients, such as zinc, are ready to volatize. In that instance, the operator throws yellow sulphur into the portion of the crucible where the unmelted brass is located, whereupon a blue flame arises and increases the temperature in the immediate vicinity of the sulphur, causing the brass to melt readily. Thus, the addition of sulphur has the opposite effect from the addition of charcoal in that sulphur increases the heat or fire where charcoal puts it out or minimizes it. The muriatic acid may volatize, to some extent, when it encounters the molten metal, but it undoubtedly reacts chemically with the metals in the crucible to produce salts such as chlorides which increase the tenacity of adhesion of the alloy in welding or soldering, and thus render the use of a separate flux unnecessary. The charcoal blanket however, reduces the tendency of the muriatic acid to volatilize, especially if only small portions of the chemical ingredients are pushed through the charcoal layer into the molten metals at a given time. The copper slag of the formula, being inert and heat-resistant, merely serves as a vehicle or carrier or modulator in a manner analogous to the phenomenon of modulation in radio wave transmission. Thus, the alloy of the present invention is characterized by the presence of chemicals in solution with the metals, these chemicals remaining in the alloy upon solidification and enhancing the flow of the alloy by capillary action during welding without the use of a separate flux. The use of the alloy of the present invention enables aluminum to be substituted for critically scarce copper in many installations or applications where aluminum was previously considered unsatisfactory because of the difficulty of welding or soldering it. The present alloy may also be used to coat aluminum wire by a procedure analogous to "tinning" copper wire so that the thus coated aluminum may be soft-soldered to other metals. The present alloy may also be used in the form of a molten bath for "tinning" aluminum articles for soldering them or for hermetically sealing them. &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& puharich: meyer like h2o dissociator http://www.rexresearch.com/puharich/1puhar.htm DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION Section 1 --- Apparatus of Invention The apparatus of the invention consists of three components, the electrical function generator, the thermodynamic device, and the water cell. COMPONENT I. The Electrical Funtion Generator ~ This device has an output consisting of an audio frequency (range 20 to 200 Hz) amplitude modulation of a carrier wave (range 200 Hz to 100,000 Hz). The impedance of this output signal is continuously being matched to the load which is the second component, the thermodynamic device. The electrical function generator represents a novel application of circuitry disclosed in my earlier U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,629,521; 3,563,246; and 3,726,762, which are incorporated by reference herein. See FIG. 1 for the block diagram of Component I. COMPONENT II. The Thermodynamic Device ~ The thermodynamic device is fabricated of metals and ceramic in the geometric form of coaxial cylinder made up of a centered hollow tubular electrode which is surrounded by a larger tubular steel cylinder, said two electrodes comprising the coaxial electrode system which forms the load of the output of the electrical function generator, Component I. Said center hollow tubular electrode carries water, and is separated from the outer cylindrical electrode by a porous ceramic vitreous material. Between the outer surface of the insulating ceramic vitreous material, and the inner surface of the outer cylindrical electrode exists a space to contain the water to be electrolysed. This water cell space comprises the third component (Component III) of the invention. It contains two lengths of tubular pyrex glass, shown in FIGS. 2 and 3. The metal electrode surfaces of the two electrodes which are in contact with the water are coated with a nickel alloy. The coaxial electrode system is specifically designed in materials and geometry to energize the water molecule to the end that it might be electrolysed. The center electrode is a hollow tube and also serves as a conductor of water to the Component III cell. The center tubular electrode is coated with a nickel alloy, and surrounded with a porous vitreous ceramic and a glass tube with the exception of the tip that faces the second electrode. The outer cylindrical electrode is made of a heat conducting steel alloy with fins on the outside, and coated on the inside with a nickel alloy. The center electrode, and the cylindrical electrode are electrically connected by an arching dome extension of the outer electrode which brings the two electrodes at one point to a critical gap distance which is determined by the known quenching distance for hydrogen. See FIG. 2 for an illustration of Component II. COMPONENT III. The Water Cell The water cell is a part of the upper end of Component II, and has been described. An enlarged schematic illustration of the cell is presented in FIG. 3. The Component III consists of the water and glass tubes contained in the geometrical form of the walls of cell in Component II, the thermodynamic device. The elements of a practical device for the practice of the invention will include: (A) Water reservoir; and salt reservoir; and/or salt (B) Water injection system with microprocessor or other controls which sense and regulate (in accordance with the parameters set forth hereinafter): a. carrier frequency b. current c. voltage d. RC relaxation time constant of water in the cell e. nuclear magnetic relaxation constant of water f. temperature of hydrogen combustion g. carrier wave form h. RPM of an internal combustion engine (if used) i. ignition control system j. temperature of region to be heated; (C) An electrical ignition system to ignite the evolved hydrogen gas fuel. The important aspects of Component III are the tubular vitreous material, the geometry of the containing walls of the cell, and the geometrical forms of the water molecules that are contained in the cell. A further important aspect of the invention is the manipulation of the tetrahedral geometry of the water molecule by the novel methods and means which will be more fully described in the succeeding sections of this specification. The different parts of a molecule are bound together by electrons. One of the electron configurations which can exist is the covalent bond which is achieved by the sharing of electrons. A molecule of hydrogen gas, H2 is the smallest representative unit of covalent bonding, as can be seen in FIG. 4. The molecule of hydrogen gas is formed by the overlap and pairing of 1s orbital electrons. A new molecular orbit is formed in which the shared electron pair orbits both nuclei as shown in FIG. 4. The attraction of the nuclei for the shared electrons holds the atoms together in a covalent bond. Covalent bonds have direction. The electronic orbitals of an uncombined atom can change shape and direction when that atom becomes part of a molecule. In a molecule in which two or more covalent bonds are present the molecular geometry is dictated by the bond angles about the central atom. The outermost lone pair (non-bonding) electrons profoundly affect the molecular geometry. The geometry of water illustrates this concept. In the ground state, oxygen has the outer shell configuration 1s2 2s2 2p2x 2p1y 2p1z In water the 1s electrons from two hydrogens bond with the 2py and 2pz electrons of oxygen. Since p orbitals lie at right angles to each other (see FIG. 4A), a bond angle of 90° might be expected. However, the bond angle is found experimentally to be approximately 104°. Theoretically this is explained by the effect of lone pair electrons on hybridized orbitals. Combined or hybrid orbitals are formed when the excitement of 2s electrons results in their promotion from the ground state to a state energetically equivalent to the 2p orbitals. The new hybrids are termed sp3 from the combination of one s and three p orbitals (See FIG. 4B). Hybrid sp3 orbitals are directed in space from the center of a regular tetrahedron toward the four corners. If the orbitals are equivalent the bond angle will be 109°28' (See Fig. 15) consistent with the geometry of a tetrahedron. In the case of water two of the orbitals are occupied by non-bonding electrons (See FIG. 4C). There is greater repulsion of these lone pair electrons which orbit only one nucleus, compared to the repulsion of electrons in bonding orbitals which orbit two nuclei. This tends to increase the angle between non-bonding orbitals so that it is greater than 109°, which pushes the bonding orbitals together, reducing the bond angle to 104°. In the case of ammonia, NH3 where there is only one lone pair, the repulsion is not so great and the bond angle is 107°. Carbon forms typical tetrahedral forms and components the simplest being the gas methane, CH4 (See FIGS. 4C and 8). The repulsion of lone pair electrons affects charge distribution and contributes to the polarity of a covalent bond. (See FIG. 16) As demonstrated in succeeding sections of this patent specification, a significant and novel aspect of this invention is the manipulation, by electronic methods and means, of the energy level of the water molecule, and the transformation of the water molecule into, and out of, the geometrical form of the tetrahedron. This is made possible only by certain subtle dynamic interactions among the Components I, II, and III of the present invention. Section 2 --- Electrodynamics (Pure Water) ~ The electrodynamics of Components I, II, and III described individually and in interaction during the progress of purewater reaction rate in time. The reactions of saline water will be described in Section 3. It is to be noted that the output of Component I automatically follows the seven stages (hereinafter Stages A-F) of the reaction rate by varying its parameters of resonant carrier frequency, wave form, current voltage and impedance. All the seven states of the reaction herein described are not necessary for the practical operation of the system, but are included in order to explicate the dynamics and novel aspects of the invention. The seven stages are applicable only to the electrolysis of pure water. STAGE A Dry Charging of Component II by Component I ~ To make the new system operational, the Component I output electrodes are connected to component II, but no water is placed in the cell of Component III. When Component I output is across the load of Component II we observe the following electrical parameters are observed: Range of current (I) output with (dry) load: 0 to 25 mA (milliamperes) rms. Range of voltage (E) output with (dry) load: 0 to 250 Volts (AC) rms. There is no distortion of the amplitude modulated (AM), or of the sine wave carrier whose center frequency, fc' Ranges between 59,748 Hz to 66, 221 Hz with fc average = 62, 985 Hz The carrier frequency varies with the power output in that fc goes down with an increase in amperes (current). The AM wave form is shown in FIG. 5. It is to be noted here that the electrical function generator, Component I, has an automatic amplitude modulation volume control which cycles the degree of AM from 0% to 100%, and then down from 100% to 0% .congruent. every 3.0 seconds. This cycle rate of 3.0 seconds corresponds to the nuclear spin relaxation time, tau/sec, of the water in Component III. The meaning of this effect will be discussed in greater detail in a later section. In summary, the principal effects to be noted during Stage A -dry charging of Component II are as follows: a. Tests the integrity of Component I circuitry. b. Tests the integrity of the coaxial electrodes, and the vitreous ceramic materials of Component II and Component III. c. Electrostatic cleaning of electrode and ceramic surfaces. STAGE B Initial operation of Component I, Component II, and with Component III containing pure water. There is no significant electrolysis of water during Stage B. However, in Stage B the sine wave output of Component I is shaped to a rippled square wave by the changing RC constant of the water as it is treated; There is an `Open Circuit` reversible threshold effect that occurs in Component III due to water polarization effects that lead to half wave rectification and the appearance of positive unipolar pulses; and There are electrode polarization effects in Component II which are a prelude to true electrolysis of water as evidenced by oxygen and hydrogen gas bubble formation. Appearance of Rippled Square Waves ~ Phase 1: At the end of the Stage A dry charging, the output of Component I is lowered to a typical value of: I = 1mA. E = 24VAC. fc .congruent.66,234 Hz. Phase 2: Then water is added to the Component III water cell drop by drop until the top of the center electrode, 1', in FIG. 3 is covered, and when this water just makes contact with the inner surface of the top outer electrode at 2'. As this coupling of the two electrodes by water happens, the following series of events occur: Phase 3: The fc drops from 66,234 Hz, to a range from 1272 Hz to 1848 Hz. The current and voltage both drop, and begin to pulse in entrainment with the water nuclear spin relaxation constant, tau =3.0 sec. The presence of the nuclear spin relaxation oscillation is proven by a characteristic hysteresis loop on the X-Y axes of an oscillscope. I = 0 to 0.2mA surging at .tau. cycle E = 4.3 to 4.8VAC surging at .tau. cycle The sine wave carrier converts to a rippled square wave pulse which reflects the RC time constant of water, and it is observed that the square wave contains higher order harmonics. See FIG. 6: With the appearance of the rippled square wave, the threshold of hydrolysis may be detected (just barely) as a vapor precipitation on a cover glass slip placed over the Component III cell and viewed under a low power microscope. The `Open Circuit` Reversible Threshold Effect ~ Phase 4: A secondary effect of the change in the RC constant of water on the wave form shows up as a full half wave rectification of the carrier wave indicating a high level of polarization of the water molecule in tetrahedral form at the outer electrode. With the already noted appearance of the rippled square wave, and the signs of faint vapor precipitation which indicate the earliest stage of electrolysis, it is possible to test for the presence of a reversible hydrolysis threshold. This test is carried out by creating an open circuit between Components I and II, i.e., no current flows. This is done by lowering the water level between the two electrodes in the region --- 1' and 2' shown in FIG. 3; or by interrupting the circuit between Component I and II, while the Component I signal generator is on and oscillating. Immediately, with the creation of an `open circuit` condition, the following effects occur: (a) The carrier frequency, fc, shifts from Phase 4 valve 1272 Hz to 1848 Hz to 6128 Hz. (b) The current and voltage drop to zero on the meters which record I and E, but the oscilloscope continues to show the presence of the peak-to-peak (p-p) voltage, and the waveform shows a remarkable effect. The rippled square wave has disappeared, and in its place there appear unipolar (positive) pulses as follows in FIG. 6A. The unipolar pulse frequency stabilizes to ca. 5000 Hz. The unipolar pulses undergo a 0 to 1.3 volt pulsing amplitude modulation with .tau. at 3.0 seconds. Thus, there exists a pure open circuit reversible threshold for water electrolysis in which the water molecules are capacitor charging and discharging at their characteristic low frequency RC time constant of 0.0002 seconds. It is to be noted that pure water has a very high dielectric constant which makes such an effect possible. The pulsing amplitude modulation of the voltage is determined by the Hydrogen Nuclear Spin Relaxation constant, where .tau..congruent.3.0 seconds. It is to be noted that the positive pulse spikes are followed by a negative after-potential. These pulse wave forms are identical to the classic nerve action potential spikes found in the nervous system of all living species that have a nervous system. The fact that these unipolar pulses were observed arising in water under the conditions of reversible threshold hydrolysis has a profound significance. These findings illuminate and confirm the Warren McCulloch Theory of water "crystal" dynamics as being the foundation of neural dynamics; and the converse theory of Linus Pauling which holds that water clathrate formation is the mechanism of neural anesthesia. Phase 5: The effects associated with reversible threshold electrolysis are noted only in passim since they reflect events which are occurring on the electrode surfaces of Component II, the Thermodynamic Device. A principal effect that occurs in Stage B, Phase 3, in Component II, the thermodynamic device, is that the two electrodes undergo stages of polarization. It has been observed in extensive experiments with different kinds of fluids in the cell of Component II , i.e., distilled water, sea water, tap water, Ringers solution, dilute suspensions of animal and human blood cells, that the inner surface of the outer ring electrode at 3' in FIG. 3 (the electrode that is in contact with the fluid) becomes negatively charged. Referring to FIG. 7, this corresponds to the left hand columnar area marked, Electrode .crclbar.. Electrode Polarization Effects at the Interface Between Components II and III ~ Concurrently with the driver pulsing of Component I at the .tau. constant cycle which leads to electrode polarization effects in Component II, there is an action on Component III which energizes and entrains the water molecule to a higher energy level which shifts the bond angle from 104° to the tetrahedral form with angle 109°28' as shown in FIGS. 8 and 15. This electronic pumping action is most important, and represents a significant part of the novel method of this invention for several reasons. First, the shift to the tetrahedral form of water increases the structural stability of the water molecule, thereby making it more susceptible to breakage at the correct resonant frequency, or frequencies. Second, increasing the polarization of the water molecule makes the lone pair electrons, S- connected with the oxygen molecule more electronegative; and the weakly positive hydrogen atoms, S+ more positive. See FIG. 9 and FIG. 22. As the outer electrode becomes more electronegative, the center electrode concomitantly becomes more electropositive as will be shown. As the polarity of the water molecule tetrahedron increases, a repulsive force occurs between the two S+ apices of the water tetrahedron and the negatively charged electrode surface within the region of the Helmholtz layer, as shown in FIG. 7. This effect "orients" the water molecule in the field, and is the well-known "orientation factor" of electrochemistry which serves to catalyse the rate of oxygen dissociation from the water molecule, and thereby causes the reaction rate to proceed at the lowest energy levels. See FIG. 10 for an example of how the orientation factor works. Near the end of Stage B, the conditions are established for the beginning of the next stage, the stage of high efficiency electrolysis of water. STAGE C Generation of the complex wave form frequencies from Component I to match the complex wave form resonant frequencies of the energized and highly polarized water molecule in tetrahedral form with angles, 109°28' are carried out in Stage C. In the operation of the invention active bubble electrolysis of water is initiated following Stage B, phase 3 by setting (automatically) the output of Component I to: I = 1mA., E = 22VAC-rms, causing the rippled square wave pulses to disappear with the appearance of a rippled sawtooth wave. The basic frequency of the carrier now becomes, fc = 3980 Hz. The wave form now automatically shifts to a form found to be the prime characteristic necessary for optimum efficiency in the electrolysis of water and illustrated in FIG. 11. In the wave form of FIG. 11, the fundamental carrier frequency, fc = 3980 Hz., and a harmonic modulation of the carrier is as follows: 1st Order Harmonic Modulation (OHM) = 7960 Hz. 2nd Order Harmonic Modulation (II OHM) = 15,920 Hz. 3rd Order Harmonic Modulation (III OHM) = 31,840 Hz. 4th Order Harmonic Modulation (IV OHM) = 63,690 Hz. What is believed to be happening in this IV OHM effect is that each of the four apices of the tetrahedron water molecule is resonant to one of the four harmonics observed. It is believed that the combination of negative repulsive forces at the outer electrode with the resonant frequencies just described work together to shatter the water molecule into its component hydrogen and oxygen atoms (as gases). This deduction is based on the following observations of the process through a low power microscope. The hydrogen bubbles were seen to originate at the electrode rim, 4', of FIG. 3. The bubbles then moved in a very orderly `pearl chain` formation centripetally (like the spokes of a wheel) toward the center electrode, 1' of FIG. 3. FIG. 12 shows a top view of this effect. Thereafter, upon lowering the output of Component I, the threshold for electrolysis of water as evidenced by vapor deposition of water droplets on a glass cover plate over the cell of Component III, is: with all other conditions and waveforms as described under Stage C, supra. Occasionally, this threshold can be lowered to: This Stage C vapor hydrolysis threshold effect cannot be directly observed as taking place in the fluid because no bubbles are formed --- only invisible gas molecules which become visible when they strike a glass plate and combine into water molecules and form droplets which appear as vapor. STAGE D Production of hydrogen and oxygen gas at an efficient rate of water electrolysis is slowed in Stage D when a barrier potential is formed, which barrier blocks electrolysis, irrespective of the amount of power applied to Components II and III. A typical experiment will illustrate the problems of barrier potential formation. Components I, II, and III are set to operate with the following parameters: This input to Component III yields, by electrolysis of water, approximately 0.1 cm3 of hydrogen gas per minute at one atmosphere and 289° K. It is observed that as a function of time the fc crept up from 2978 Hz to 6474 Hz over 27 minutes. The current and the voltage also rose with time. At the 27th minute a barrier effect blocked the electrolysis of water, and one can best appreciate the cycle of events by reference to FIG. 13. STAGE E The Anatomy of the Barrier Effect Region A: Shows active and efficient hydrolysis Region B: The barrier region effect can be initiated with taps of the finger, or it can spontaneously occur as a function of time. Phase a: The current rose from 1 mA to 30 mA. The voltage fell from 22 volts to 2.5 V. Phase b: If component II is tapped mechanically during Phase a supra --- it can be reversed as follows: The current dropped from 30 Ma to 10 Ma. The voltage shot up from 5 volts to over 250 volts (off scale). Throughout Phase a and Phase b, all hydrolysis has ceased. It was observed under the microscope that the inner surface of the outer electrode was thickly covered with hydrogen gas bubbles. It was reasoned that the hydrogen gas bubbles had become trapped in the electrostricted layer, because the water molecule tetrahedrons had flipped so that the S+ hydrogen apices had entered the Helmholtz layer and were absorbed to the electronegative charge of the electrode. This left the S- lone pair apices facing the electrostricted layer. This process bound the newly forming H.sup.+ ions which blocked the reaction H+ + H+ + 2e ==> H2 (gas) STAGE F Region C: It was found that the barrier effect could be unblocked by some relatively simple procedures: (a) Reversing the output electrodes from Component I to Component II, and/or: (b) Mechanically tapping the Component III cell at a frequency T/2 = 1.5 seconds per tap. These effects are shown in FIG. 12 and induce the drop in barrier potential from: Upon unblocking of the barrier effect, electrolysis of water resumed with renewed bubble formation of hydrogen gas. The barrier potential problem has been solved for practical application by lowering the high dielectric constant of pure water, by adding salts (NaCl, KOH, etc.) to the pure water thereby increasing its conductivity characteristics. For optimum efficiency the salt concentration need not exceed that of sea water (0.9% salinity) in Section 3, "Thermodynamics of the Invention", it is to be understood that all water solutions described are not "pure" water as in Section B, but refer only to salinized water. Section 3 --- The Thermodynamics of the Invention (Saline Water) ~ Introduction (water, hereinafter refers to salinized water) ~ The thermodynamic considerations in the normal operations of Components I, II, and III in producing hydrogen as fuel, and oxygen as oxidant during the electrolysis of water, and the combustion of the hydrogen fuel to do work in various heat engines is discussed in this section. In chemical reactions the participating atoms form new bonds resulting in compounds with different electronic configurations. Chemical reactions which release energy are said to be exergonic and result in products whose chemical bonds have a lower energy content than the reactants. The energy released most frequently appears as heat. Energy, like matter, can neither be created nor destroyed according to conservation law. The energy released in a chemical reaction plus the lower energy state of the products is equal to the original energy content of the reactants. The burning of hydrogen occurs rather violently to produce water as follows: 2H2 + O2 ===> 2H2O - .DELTA.H 68.315 Kcal/mol (this is the enthalpy, or heat of combustion at constant pressure) (18 gms) = 1 mol) The chemical bonds of the water molecules have a lower energy content than the hydrogen and oxygen gases which serve at the reactants. Low energy molecules are characterized by their ability. High energy molecules are inherently unstable. These relations are summarized in the two graphs of FIG. 14. It is to be noted that FIG. 14 (b) shows the endergonic reaction aspect of the invention when water is decomposed by electrolysis into hydrogen and oxygen. FIG. 14 (a) shows the reaction when the hydrogen and oxygen gases combine, liberate energy, and re-form into water. Note that there is a difference in the potential energy of the two reactions. FIG. 14 (c) shows that there are two components to this potential energy. The net energy released, or the energy that yields net work is labelled in the diagram as Net Energy released, and is more properly called the free energy change denoted by the Gibbs function, -.DELTA.G. The energy which must be supplied for a reaction to achieve (burning) spontaneity is called the activation energy. The sum of the two is the total energy released. A first thermodynamic subtlety of the thermodynamic device of the invention is noted in Angus McDougall's Fuel Cells, Energy Alternative Series, The MacMillan Press Ltd., London, 1976, page 15 it is stated: "The Gibbs function is defined in terms of the enthalpy H, and the entropy S of the system: G = H-T S (where .tau. is the thermodynamic temperature) A particularly important result is that for an electrochemical cell working reversibly at constant temperature and pressure, the electrical work done is the net work and hence, .DELTA.G = -we For this to be a reversible process, it is necessary for the cell to be on `open circuit`, that is, no current flows and the potential difference across the electrodes is the EMF, E. Thus, .DELTA.G = -zFE (where F is the Faraday constant --- the product of the Avogadro Constant + NA = 6.022045 x 1023 mole-1, and the charge on the electron, e = 1.602 189 x 10-19 C --- both in SI units; and z is the number of electrons transported.) when the cell reaction proceeds from left to right." It is to be noted that the activation energy is directly related to the controlling reaction rate process, and thus is related to the Gibbs free energy changes. The other thermodynamic subtlety is described by S. S. Penner in his work: Penner, S. S. and L. Icerman, Energy, Vol, II, Non-Nuclear Energy Technologies. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. Revised Edition, 1977. Reading, Mass. Page 140 ff. "It should be possible to improve the efficiency achieved in practical electrolysis to about 100% because, under optimal operating conditions, the theoretically-attainable energy conversion by electrolysis is about 120% of the electrical energy input. The physical basis for this last statement will now be considered. "A useful definition for energy efficiency in electrolysis is the following: the energy efficiency is the ratio of the energy released from the electrolysis products formed (when they are subsequently used) to the energy required to effect electrolysis. The energy released by the process H2 (gas) + (1/2)O2 (gas) ===> H2O (liquid) under standard conditions (standard conditions in this example are: (1) atmospheric pressure = 760 mm Hg and (2) temperature = 298.16° K. = 25° C. = 77° F.) is 68.315 Kcal and is numerically equal to the enthalph change (.DELTA.H) for the indicated process. On the other hand, the minimum energy (or useful work input) required at constant temperature and pressure for electrolysis equals the Gibbs free energy change (.DELTA.G). There is a basic relation derivable from the first and second laws of thermodynamics for isothermal changes, which shows that .DELTA.G = .DELTA.H - T.DELTA.S where .DELTA.S represents the entropy change for the chemical reaction. The Gibbs free energy change (.DELTA.G) is also related to the voltage (E) required to implement electrolysis by Faraday's equation, viz. E = (.DELTA.G/23.06n) volts where .DELTA.G is in Kcal/mol and n is the number of electrons (or equivalents) per mol of water electrolyzed and has the numerical value 2. "At atmospheric pressure and 300° K., .DELTA.H = 68.315 Kcal/mol of H2O (i) and .DELTA.G = 56.62 Kcal/mole of H2O (i) for the electrolysis of liquid water. Hence, the energy efficiency of electrolysis at 300° K. is about 120%." "(When) H2 (gas) and O2 (gas) are generated by electrolysis, the electrolysis cell must absorb heat from the surroundings, in order to remain at constant temperature. It is this ability to produce gaseous electrolysis products with heat absorption from the surroundings that is ultimately responsible for energy-conversion efficiencies during electrolysis greater than unity." Using the criteria of these two authorities, it is possible to make a rough calculation of the efficiency of the present invention. Section 4 --- Thermodynamic Efficiency of the Invention ~ Efficiency is deduced on the grounds of scientific accounting principles which are based on accurate measurements of total energy input to a system (debit), and accurate measurements of total energy (or work) obtained out of the system (credit). In principle, this is followed by drawing up a balance sheet of energy debits and credits, and expressing them as an efficiency ration, .eta.. The energy output of Component I is an alternating current looking into a highly non-linear load, i.e., the water solution. This alternating current generator (Component I) is so designed that at peak load it is in resonance (Components I, II, III), and the vector diagrams show that the capacitive reactance, and the inductive reactance are almost exactly 180° out of phase, so that the net power output is reactive, and the dissipative power is very small. This design insures minimum power losses across the entire output system. In the experiments which are now to be described the entire emphasis was placed on achieving the maximum gas yield (credit) in exchange for the minimum applied energy (debit). The most precise way to measure the applied energy to Components II and III is to measure the Power, P, in Watts, W. This was done by precision measurements of the volts across Component II as root mean square (rms) volts; and the current flowing in the system as rms amperes. Precisely calibrated instruments were used to take these two measurements. A typical set of experiments (using water in the form of 0.9% saline solution = 0.1540 molar concentration) to obtain high efficiency hydrolysis gave the following results: rms Current = I = 25 mA to 38 mA (0.025 A to 0.038 A) rms Volts = E = 4 Volts to 2.6 Volts The resultant ratio between current and voltage is dependent on many factors, such as the gap distance between the center and ring electrodes, dielectric properties of the water, conductivity properties of the water, equilibrium states, isothermal conditions, materials used, and even the presence of clathrates. The above current and voltage values reflect the net effect of various combinations of such parameters. The product of rms current, and rms volts is a measure of the power, P in watts: P = I x E = 25 mA.times.4.0 volts = 100 mW (0.1 W) P = I x E = 38 mA.times.2.6 volts = 98.8 mW (0.0988 W) At these power levels (with load), the resonant frequency of the system is 600 Hz (.+-.5 Hz) as measured on a precision frequency counter. The wave form was monitored for harmonic content on an oscilloscope, and the nuclear magnetic relaxation cycle was monitored on an X-Y plotting oscilloscope in order to maintain the proper hysteresis loop figure. All experiments were run so that the power in Watts, applied through Components I, II, and III ranged between 98.8 mW to 100 mW. Since, by the International System of Units --- 1971 (SI), One-Watt-second (Ws) is exactly equal to One Joule (J), the measurements of efficiency used these two yardsticks (1 Ws=1 J) for the debit side of the measurement. The energy output of the system is, of course, the two gases, hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (1/2O2), and this credit side was measured in two laboratories, on two kinds of calibrated instruments, namely, a Gas Chromatography Machine, and, a Mass Spectrometer Machine. The volume of gases, H2 and (1/2)O2, was measured as produced under standard conditions of temperature and pressure in unit time, i.e., in cubic centimeters per minute (cc/min), as well as the possibly contaminating gases, such as air oxygen, nitrogen and argon; carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water vapor, etc. The electrical, and gas, measurements were reduced to the common denominator of Joules of energy so that the efficiency accounting could all be handled in common units. The averaged results from many experiments follow. The Standard Error between different samples, machines, and locations is .+-.10%, and only the mean was used for all the following calculations. Section 5 --- Endergonic Decomposition of Liquid Water ~ Thermodynamic efficiency for the endergonic decomposition of liquid water (salinized) to gases under standard atmosphere (754 to 750 m.m. Hg), and standard isothermal conditions @ 25° C. = 77° F. = 298.16° K., according to the following reaction: H2O(1) ===> H2 (g) + (1/2)O2 (g) + .DELTA.G 56.620 KCal/mole As already described, .DELTA.G is the Gibbs function (FIG. 14b). A conversion of Kcal to the common units, Joules, by the formula, One Calorie = 4.1868 Joules was made. .DELTA.G = 56.620 Kcal x 4.1868 J = 236,954 J/mol of H2O (1) where, 1 mole is 18 gms. .DELTA.G = the free energy required to yield an equivalent amount of energy from H.sub.2 O in the form of the gases, H2 and (1/2)O2. To simplify the calculations, the energy required to produce 1.0 cc of H2O as the gases, H2 and (1/2)O2 was determined. There are (under standard conditions) 22,400 cc = V, of gas in one mole of H2O. Therefore, The electrical energy required to liberate 1.0 cc of the H2O gases (where H2 = 0.666 parts, and (1/2)O2 = 0.333 parts, by volume) from liquid water is then determined. Since P = 1 Ws = 1 Joule, and V=1.0 cc of gas = 10.5783 Joules, then, Since the experiments were run at 100 mW (0.1 W) applied to the water sample in Component II, III, for 30 minutes, the ideal (100% efficient) gas production at this total applied power level was calculated. 0.1 Ws x 60 sec x 30 min = 180.00 Joules (for 30 min) The total gas production at Ideal 100% efficiency is, 180.00 J / 10.5783 J/cc = 17.01 cc H2O (g) The amount of hydrogen present in the 17.01 cc H2O (g) was then calculated. 17.01 cc H2O (gas) x 0.666 H2 (g) = 11.329 cc H2 (g) 17.01 cc H2O (g) x 0.333 (1/2)O2 (g) = 5.681 cc (1/2)O2 (g) Against this ideal standard of efficiency of expected gas production, the actual amount of gas produced was measured under: (1) standard conditions as defined above (2) 0.1 Ws power applied over 30 minutes. In the experiments, the mean amount of H2 and (1/2)O2 produced, as measured on precision calibrated GC, and MS machines in two different laboratories, where the S.E. is +-10%, was, ______________________________________ Measured Mean = 10.80 cc H2 (g) Measured Mean = 5.40 cc (1/2) O2 (g) Total Mean = 16.20 cc H2O(g) ______________________________________ The ratio, .eta., between the ideal yield, and measured yield, Section 6 --- Energy Release ~ The total energy release (as heat, or electricity) from an exergonic reaction of the gases, H2 and O2, is given by, It is possible (Penner, Op. Cit., p. 128) to get a total heat release, or total conversion to electricity in a fuel cell, in the above reaction when the reactants are initially near room temperature (298.16° K.), and the reactant product (H2O) is finally returned to room temperature. With this authoritative opinion in mind, it is desirable to determine the amount of energy released (ideal) from the exergonic experiment. The total energy of 1.0 cc of H2O (1), as above is: for H2 = 12.7687 x 0.666 = 8.509 J/0.66 cc H2 for O2 = 12.7687 x 0.333 = 4.259 J/0.33 cc (1/2)O2 The energy produced from the gases produced in the experiments in an exergonic reaction was, 16.20 cc H2O (g) x 12.7687 J/cc H2O = 206,8544 J. The overall energy transaction can be written as, In practical bookkeeping terms the balance of debits and credits, n = (-.DELTA.H) - (+.DELTA.G), so, n = 206.8544 J - 180.0 = + 26.8544 J (surplus). Since, in the invention, the gas is produced where and when needed, there is no additional cost accounting for liquifaction, storage, or transportation of the hydrogen fuel, and the oxygen oxidant. Therefore, the practical efficiency, is In practical applications, the energy output (exergonic) of the Component II System can be parsed between the electrical energy required to power the Component I System, as an isothermal closed loop; while the surplus of approximately 15% can be shunted to an engine (heat, electrical, battery, etc.) that has a work load. Although this energy cost accounting represents an ideal model, it is believed that there is enough return (app. 15%) on the capital energy investment to yield a net energy profit that can be used to do useful work. Conclusion ~ From the foregoing disclosure it will be appreciated that the achievement of efficient water splitting through the application of complex electrical waveforms to energized water molecules, i.e. tetrahedral molecules having bonding angles of 109°28', in the special apparatus described and illustrated, will provide ample and economical production of hydrogen gas and oxygen gas from readily available sources of water. It is to be understood, that the specific forms of the invention disclosed and discussed herein are intended to be representative and by way of illustrative example only, since various changes may be made therein without departing from the clear and specific teachings of the disclosure. Accordingly, reference should be made to the following appended claims in determining the full scope of the method and apparatus of the present invention. http://web.archive.org/web/20010602132159/www.escribe.com/science/keelynet/index.html ? NIST and the literature contained no references on such atomic mixtures. My instrumentation using the NIST WWV clock signal proved flame propagation (velocity) rate is 8160 ft/sec -- mach 7.5, as compared to tank H2 and O2 being 680 ft/sec. &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& Chemaloy Smelting Process from Patent # 2,796,345 of June 18, 1957

In preparing the alloy of the present invention, the following metals and metal alloys are melted together in a crucible in the following proportions to provide the metallic ingredients:

                                                      Pounds
Yellow brass (30% zinc and 70% copper)----------------  8
Aluminum --------------------------------------------   8
40-60 solder (40% tin 60% lead) ---------------------   1.5
Silver (.1%) or --------------------------------------  .1
Nickel (.1%) ---------------------------------------    .1
Zinc, to make up a 100 pound batch or --------------    82.3
                                                    -----------
                                                         100.0
The chemical ingredients are next prepared in approximately the following proportions, for a 100 pound batch of the above metal ingredients:

 
Powdered copper slag ---------------pounds---------     3.0
Yellow sulphur ----------------------do------------     1.25
Willow charcoal ---------------------do------------     0.75
Commercial muriatic acid ----------gallons---------     0.50
 
The chemical ingredients are mixed together thoroughly and the acid added and stirred into the dry ingredients until a thin or watery paste-like mass is produced.

Meanwhile, the metal ingredients in the crucible have been heated until they reach the temperature of approximately 1450º F. and a layer of fine grain powdered charcoal of approximately a half-inch thickness is deposited on top of the molten metal to form an insulating blanket. When this charcoal layer has become red in color, the wet mass of chemical ingredients is deposited entirely over the top of the charcoal blanket in a thick layer. Using a suitable pushing device, such as a metal rod, the chemical mass is forced down through the charcoal blanket into the molten metal mixture, a small area at a time. The charcoal blanket shields the remainder of the mass from explosion or excessive reaction.

As the chemical mass is pushed into the molten metal mixture in the crucible, a multitude of tiny reactions occurs throughout it, instead of a single large explosion, due to the fact that the chemical particles are separated from one another by the porous inert slag and by the particles of charcoal.

As each portion which has been pushed down into the molten mixture is absorbed into the latter, another portion is pushed down and so on, until each portion of the chemical mass or layer has been pushed through the insulating charcoal blanket, a small area at a time.

After all of the wet chemical mass has been pushed downward into the molten metal mixture in the crucible, the entire mixture is stirred thoroughly to release all of the chemicals from the pores of the copper slag and to cause the tiny reactions and the explosions to be completed. When this has been done, and the slag has lost its chemical impregnations by these reactions and minute explosions, the slag floats to the surface of the molten metal mixture, along with other impurities or superfluous materials, these being skimmed from the surface of the molten mixture, leaving the latter in its finished state. The chemically-impregnated alloy thus formed is then poured out and formed into suitable shapes such as rods, bars or ingots.

During the period in which the chemical ingredients are being pushed downward through the charcoal blanket into the molten metal mixture, corrosive fumes are emitted which must be carefully disposed of or they will discolor paint, corrode ferrous metals, and cause annoyance to persons in the vicinity. After the alloy has been made in the above manner, however, it may be subsequently remelted without the formation of such fumes. The chemically-impregnated alloy remaining after the process has been completed is a finely homogenized, high quality alloy which is easily machined, plated or painted, as desired.

The present process also enables the combining of zinc and lead in an alloy, even though these metals are normally incompatible. For example, only one-half of one percent of lead in a zinc based die, such as is used in aircraft production, causes the die to crack during use, because lead will not ordinarily mix with zinc satisfactorily.

The copper slag mentioned in the foregoing process is the waste slag produced in copper smelting plants, and is useful because of its porosity and inert characteristics. It will be obvious that other porous materials which are similarly inert may also be employed to subdivide the chemical ingredients in the above manner and thereby convert an otherwise dangerous single explosion into a multitude of tiny harmless explosions and reactions.

The chemical ingredients thus incorporated into the metal alloy impart to the alloy the capability of flowing naturally and easily by capillary attraction when the alloy is applied to the junction of metal parts, such as aluminum to be united, without the previous use of a flux. Hitherto, it has been necessary to apply a flux in order to form a flux path at the junction of the metal parts to be united, or otherwise the welding metal does not flow well, and does not easily enter the junction between the metal parts to be united.

The proportions, and indeed, the components of the metallic mixture are not critical and many variations may be used. In place of the brass, pure copper or even bronze can be employed, more copper giving greater strength. The nickel and silver components are mere traces which produce better uniting of the metal components with one another. The chemical components of the alloy enable the alloy to penetrate the oxide film on aluminum without wire brushing or other previous preparation and to penetrate the crack or other junction between the parts to be united and to emerge on the opposite side thereof.

Proof that the chemical ingredients remain in the alloy is found in the fact that shavings of the alloy placed in a glass of ordinary tap water cause the flow of an electric current which may be detected by a voltmeter, milliampmeter or cathode ray oscilloscope when leads or electrodes connected thereto are inserted in the water. Moreover when the alloy particles or shavings have been permitted to remain in the water for several hours, gas bubbles will emerge from the water and form on the surface. Each of these bubbles explodes upon the application of a match, showing that chemicals in the alloy shavings produce hydrogen and other gases when placed in water. A still more powerful effect is obtained when salt water is used. Moreover, if the alloy is prepared in the form of a powder, this powder tends to come to the surface of the water and float thereon even though its specific gravity or weight is nearly seven times that of water.

Applications for soldering left out

In the process of preparing the alloy of the present invention, if the furnace heat is inadvertently raised to too high a temperature so that some of the metal ingredients start to volatize, particularly the zinc, the operator immediately covers the top of the molten metal in the crucible with a layer of willow charcoal, which stops the volatilization.

Normally, however, the operator does not use more charcoal after the layer which he initially applies, and waits until this charcoal powder has become completely red before he attempts to push the chemical ingredients downward through it into the molten metal. In practice, if the chemical ingredients are forced through the charcoal blanket prematurely, that is before it becomes fully red, the charcoal powder will puff up in clouds of black smoke which is irritating to the lungs and soils the clothing and the surroundings. It has been found best to permit the charcoal to ignite and burn at the outer periphery of the crucible and gradually consume itself toward the center of the blanket, whereupon the flame disappears and the top of the molten metal in the crucible becomes tightly sealed with a red charcoal coating.

To improve the free machining characteristics of the alloy, the proportion of solder may be increased, the machinability increasing as the proportion of solder is increased. Thus, in the formula given above, instead of 1.5 pounds of solder for a hundred pound batch, as much as 3 to 5 pounds of solder may be beneficially employed.

Additional sulphur is employed occasionally if, for example, it is found that high melting components of the alloy are not properly melting, even though the temperature has been raised to the point where other ingredients, such as zinc, are ready to volatize. IN that instance, the operator throws yellow sulphur into the portion of the crucible where the unmelted brass is located, whereupon a blue flame arises and increases the temperature in the immediate vicinity of the sulphur, causing the brass to melt readily. Thus, the addition of sulphur has the opposite effect from the addition of charcoal in that sulphur increases the heat or fire where charcoal puts it out or minimizes it.

The muriatic acid may volatize, to some extent, when it encounters the molten metal, but it undoubtedly reacts chemically with the metals in the crucible to produce salts such as chlorides which increase the tenacity of adhesion of the alloy in welding or soldering, and thus render the use of a separate flux unnecessary. The charcoal blanket however, reduces the tendency of the muriatic acid to volatilize, especially if only small portions of the chemical ingredients are pushed through the charcoal layer into the molten metals at a given time. The copper slag of the formula, being inert and heat-resistant, merely serves as a vehicle or carrier or modulator in a manner analogous to the phenomenon of modulation in radio wave transmission. Thus, the alloy of the present invention is characterized by the presence of chemicals in solution with the metals, these chemicals remaining in the alloy upon solidification and enhancing the flow of the alloy by capillary action during welding without the use of a separate flux.

The use of the alloy of the present invention enables aluminum to be substituted for critically scarce copper in many installations or applications where aluminum was previously considered unsatisfactory because of the difficulty of welding or soldering it. The present alloy may also be used to coat aluminum wire by a procedure analogous to "tinning" copper wire so that the thus coated aluminum may be soft-soldered to other metals. The present alloy may also be used in the form of a molten bath for "tinning" aluminum articles for soldering them or for hermetically sealing them.

What I claim is:

1. The process of producing an alloy including zinc and lead having increased homogeneity suitable for fluxless soldering or welding of aluminum or zinc comprising the steps of preparing a dry mixture of pulverized porous copper slag, finely divided charcoal and powdered sulphur, to said mixture adding muriatic acid in quantity sufficient to form a paste-like consistency, sufficiently heating up a major proportion by weight of zinc and a minor proportion by weight of lead together to bring them to the molten state, to the surface of said molten metals adding a quantity of finely divided charcoal, burning the charcoal by the ambient heat required to maintain the metals in the molten state, continuing said burning of the charcoal until the same is reduced to a hardened read-heat layer capable of supporting the weight and mass of said muriatic acid paste mixture thereon, depositing and spreading a layer of said paste mixture on said hardened charcoal layer, forcing small areas of said paste layer through said hardened charcoal layer and into the molten metals bit by bit to generate a plurality of minute prolonged explosions and agitations within the molten metals, skimming off the flotation material forming at the surface when the agitation has subsided, and pouring the alloy into product molds for chilling and solidifying.

******************************************** What I claim is: 1. The process of producing an alloy including zinc and lead having increased homogeneity suitable for fluxless soldering or welding of aluminum or zinc comprising the steps of preparing a dry mixture of pulverized porous copper slag, finely divided charcoal and powdered sulphur, to said mixture adding muriatic acid in quantity sufficient to form a paste-like consistency, sufficiently heating up a major proportion by weight of zinc and a minor proportion by weight of lead together to bring them to the molten state, to the surface of said molten metals adding a quantity of finely divided charcoal, burning the charcoal by the ambient heat required to maintain the metals in the molten state, continuing said burning of the charcoal until the same is reduced to a hardened read-heat layer capable of supporting the weight and mass of said muriatic acid paste mixture thereon, depositing and spreading a layer of said paste mixture on said hardened charcoal layer, forcing small areas of said paste layer through said hardened charcoal layer and into the molten metals bit by bit to generate a plurality of minute prolonged explosions and agitations within the molten metals, skimming off the flotation material forming at the surface when the agitation has subsided, and pouring the alloy into product molds for chilling and solidifying. * solid rod decomposes water aided by electrolysis.

[[Water molecules in sea water destabilized by RF microwave modulation]] (another inference to the probable instability of the water molecule) To get right to the point, I believe the Kanzius effect is caused by the polarization of the hydrogen molecules in the water. This polarization causes the two atoms of hydrogen to lose their 105 degree orientation to each other and de-stabilize the water molecule. The unstable water molecule comes apart easily then, combining hydrogen to hydrogen and oxygen to oxygen in a magnetic bond. Because the water molecules’ special property to hold sodium is lost, some sodium atoms must also be released to react violently with the water still present. This ignites hydrogen which recombines with the oxygen to keep the wick from being consumed. The unusual properties of the HHO gas, catalyzes the whole process to a very high efficiency.
"Free HHO Conversion of water to its gases!"

Chemalloy Battery: Archive

April 22nd, 2009 - 43 Comments We often want to imitate nature for near perfect results. But sometimes it just remains a desire. In its quest for green and clean energy mankind is searching for that magical method that can split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Nature performs this task wonderfully through the process of photosynthesis. Man is still facing challenges in duplicating that process in the laboratory. If we are able to split water into oxygen and hydrogen in the presence of sunlight we will be able to harness the potential of hydrogen as a clean and green fuel. Till date man-made systems are quite inefficient, time consuming, money consuming and often require additional use of chemical agents. Researchers at the Weizmann Institute Organic Chemistry Department under the leadership of Prof. David Milstein have developed a novel way of splitting water molecules that can separate oxygen from water and bind the atoms in a different molecule. This technique leaves the hydrogen free to combine in other compounds as well. They were inspired by photosynthesis, a process carried out by plants. Photosynthesis is the life giving force on the earth because it is the source of all oxygen on the earth. The new approach devised by the Weizmann team has three important steps that end in liberation of hydrogen and oxygen with the help of a special metal complex. This metal complex’s core element is ruthenium. This ’smart’ complex’s metal part and organic part help in splitting the water molecules. When water is mixed with this complex, the bonds between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms break. Here one hydrogen atom binds with organic part of the complex, the hydrogen and oxygen atoms (OH group) bind to its metal center. The second stage is known as heat stage. Here the water solution is heated up to 100 degrees C. This releases the hydrogen gas from the complex. Here comes our clean and green source of fuel. Another OH group is added to the metal center. Milstein explains about the magical third stage, “But the most interesting part is the third light stage. When we exposed this third complex to light at room temperature, not only was oxygen gas produced, but the metal complex also reverted back to its original state, which could be recycled for use in further reactions.” The results are considered unique because of the generation of a bond between two oxygen atoms promoted by a man-made metal complex. It is a very unusual event. And it is still unanswerable how it can take place. The team has found out that during the third stage, light provides the energy for the two OH groups to get together to form hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This hydrogen peroxide quickly breaks up into oxygen and water. What Milstein thinks about this chemical reaction? He says, “Because hydrogen peroxide is considered a relatively unstable molecule, scientists have always disregarded this step, deeming it implausible; but we have shown otherwise.” Another interesting thing that Milstein and his team has spotted is that the bond between the two oxygen atoms is generated within a single molecule. This bond formation doesn’t occur between oxygen atoms located on separate molecules, but it comes from a single metal center. The greatest achievement of Milstein’s team has been the development of a mechanism for the formation of hydrogen and oxygen from water, without the need for sacrificial chemical agents. It has been achieved by using individual steps and utilizing light. For their next project, they intend to combine these stages to create a proficient catalytic system. These steps could leave a mark in the area of alternative energy.

    Produces Hydrogen by Splitting Water
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Science and Mechanics Magazine Article - May 1961 via-http://www.nuenergy.org/experiments/chemalloy.htm Chemalloy powderized to about 1,000,000 particles per pound exhibits the same electrical properties (Fig. 2) as the solid rod. Here it generates slightly more than .5 volt, and in addition decomposes the water, liberating hydrogen. * solid rod decomposes water aided by electrolysis. First, fill three graduated cylinders with water, one cold, the second warm, and the third hot. Add equal amounts of powdered Chemalloy to each graduated cylinder. Instantly, the graduated cylinder containing hot water liberates hydrogen. Think Yellowstone. "Why the water molecule is vulnerable to decomposition" Dec 19th 2010 "Why the water molecule is vulnerable to dissociation" Dec 19th 2010

Additional Information

internet source = http://wis-wander.weizmann.ac.il/site/en/weizman.asp?pi=422&doc_id=5735&interID=5722&sq=5722 The ones Milstein develops are based on [metal complexes] THAT SERVE AS CATALYSTS (substances that increase the rate of a chemical reaction without getting used up themselves). [3 steps]

\/ below [[[[[when a 1 step existed/& the formula still exists today as it did in 1957 via.... the patent ((USP # 2,796,345)) of Chemalloy by [Samuel Freedman + Chemalloy]=Google it zinc 85% cheap Aluminum 8% + others like lead, copper, tin and Silver, the only expensive metal=1%!!!]]]] Just Add Water Interface Fall/Winter 2009 A new method for splitting water may lead to cleaner fuel in the future Prof. David Milstein. Hydrogen in three easy steps Take a metal complex. Add water and heat to 100°C for three days, stirring occasionally. Then add a generous amount of light and continue to “simmer” at room temperature for a further two days. The resulting hydrogen and oxygen are now ready to be “served.” This is the gist of a unique new strategy devised by Prof. David Milstein and his colleagues in the Weizmann Institute’s Organic Chemistry Department; and it represents the first steps toward obtaining a clean, sustainable source of hydrogen for fuel. While today’s methods of producing hydrogen using sunlight are inefficient and often discharge chemical waste, the new system relies on a metal complex that is “reset” for reuse at the end of the procedure. In the process, the team demonstrated a new mode of bond generation between oxygen atoms and they even defined the mechanisms by which this takes place. In fact, says Milstein, the production of oxygen gas through the pairing of oxygen atoms that have been split off from water molecules – a crucial step in the process – has proven to be a bottleneck. Their results have recently been published in Science. Nature has taken a very different path to producing free oxygen: It’s a byproduct of the photosynthesis carried out by plants. Spurred on by plants’ “green” example, vast worldwide efforts have been devoted to the creation of artificial photosynthetic systems. The ones Milstein develops are based on metal complexes that serve as catalysts (substances that increase the rate of a chemical reaction without getting used up themselves). The new approach devised by the Weizmann team is divided into a stepwise sequence of reactions, beginning with water splitting. Milstein’s “secret ingredient” is a complex of the element ruthenium designed by his group in previous studies. This is a “smart” synthetic complex composed of a metal center and an organic (carbon-based) component; the two cooperate in cleaving the water molecule. This complex not only breaks the chemical bond between hydrogen and oxygen, but prevents them from getting back together by binding one hydrogen atom to its organic part and the remaining hydrogen and oxygen atoms (an OH group) to its metal part, creating a new metal complex. The second stage – the heat stage – involves heating the resulting complex in water to 100°C, leading to the release of hydrogen gas – a potential source of clean fuel – and creating another chemical structure on the metal complex, this one containing two OH groups. “But the most interesting part is the third, light-driven stage,” says Milstein. “When we exposed the third version of the complex to light at room temperature, not only was oxygen gas produced but the metal complex also reverted back to its original state, and this could be recycled for use in further reactions.” These results have garnered a fair amount of interest in their field, as bonding between two oxygen atoms promoted by a man-made metal complex was previously a very rare event and its mechanism had been a mystery. Milstein and his team succeeded, for the first time, in identifying an unprecedented mechanism for this process. Their experiments indicated that during the third stage, the energy provided by the light causes the two OH groups to get together and form hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which then quickly breaks up into oxygen and water. “Because hydrogen peroxide is considered a relatively unstable molecule, scientists have generally deemed this step implausible; but we have shown otherwise,” says Milstein. The team also challenged another misconception, providing evidence that the bond between the two oxygen atoms is generated within a single molecule, involving just one metal center, and not between oxygen atoms residing on separate molecules as was commonly thought. So far, Milstein’s team has demonstrated a three-step mechanism for the formation of hydrogen and oxygen from water using light, without the production of chemical waste. For their next study, they plan to combine these stages to create an efficient catalytic system, bringing those in the field of alternative energy one step closer to realizing the goal of a clean, efficient method for producing hydrogen fuel from water using sunlight. also from anothe rsource: Ultraviolet rays have shorter wavelengths than visible light. A wavelength, the distance between the crests of two waves, is often measured in units called nanometers. A nanometer (nm) is a billionth of a meter, or about 1/25,000,000 inch. Wavelengths of visible lights range from about 400 to 700 nm. Ultraviolet wavelengths range from about 1 to 400 nm and are beyond the range of visible light. UV exposure can be very harmful, or harmless, depending on the type of UV, the type of exposure, the duration of exposure, and individual differences in response to UV. The UV region of the electromagnetic spectrum encompasses a range from 400 nm (nanometers) through 100 nm (1 nm=10-9 m=10) and is further sub-divided into four smaller regions: UV-A (315 to 400 nm): Long wave UV, also known as "black light ", the major type of UV in sunlight, responsible for skin tanning, generally not harmful, used in medicine to treat certain skin disorders. UV-B (280 to 315 nm): Medium-wave UV, a small, but dangerous part of sunlight. Most solar UV-B is absorbed by the diminishing atmospheric ozone layer. Prolonged exposure is responsible for some type of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataracts (clouding of the lens of the eye).
Re: Cheap New Metal Catalyst Can Split Hydrogen Gas From Water at a Fraction of the CostQuote

This is very old news(1957)patenet by Samuel Freedman usa)
Chemalloy powderized to about 1,000,000 particles per pound exhibits the same elecritical properties (Fig. 2) as the solid rod. Here it generates slightly more than .5 volt, and in addition decomposes the water, liberating hydrogen.